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    Electronics World articles Popular Electronics articles QST articles Radio & TV News articles Radio-Craft articles Radio-Electronics articles Short Wave Craft articles Wireless World articles Google Search of RF Cafe website Sitemap Electronics Equations Mathematics Equations Equations physics Manufacturers & distributors Engineer Jobs LinkedIn Crosswords Engineering Humor Kirt's Cogitations Engineering Event Calendar RF Engineering Quizzes USAF radar shop Notable Quotes App Notes Calculators Education Engineering Magazines Engineering magazine articles Engineering software Engineering smorgasbord RF Cafe Archives RF Cascade Workbook 2018 RF Stencils for Visio RF & EE Shapes for Word Advertising RF Cafe 500彩票手机快三在线投注page Sudoku puzzles Thank you500彩票手机快三在线投注 for visiting RF Cafe!

    Application Notes & White Papers - #1
    Absorbers to Interference / Intermodulation

    (Page 1) RF Microwave Wireless High Frequency Application Note & White Paper Websites - RF CafeApplication Notes (App Notes) and Whitepapers (White Papers) are unquestionably an essential source of instruction for engineers and technicians. App notes and whitepapers on vendor sites are some of the fastest moving targets on the web. If you500彩票手机快三在线投注 click on a link and it is dead, please make an attempt to determine the new URL and notify me. Where possible, I have either downloaded and stored copies of PDF files*, or linked to the original webpages on the service.


    Absorbers & Shielding - EMI, RF, RFI

    - Emerson & Cuming

    - MAST Technologies

    - MAST Technologies

    A/D & D/A Converters

    - Analog Devices & EDN

    - Texas Instruments

    Decimation for ADCs - Analog Devices

    Noise Analysis of Precision Data Acquisition Signal Chain - Analog Devices

    Band-limited Sampling & Aliasing - RF Design

    Interleaving ADCs - National Semiconductor


    Amplifier Classification A vs. AB - Exodus Advanced Communications

    SWR and its Effects on Power Amplifiers - Exodus Advanced Communications

    High-Efficiency, Ka-Band GaN Power Amplifiers - QuinStar Technology

    Microwave Amplifier Design - National Taiwan University

    Amplifier Design - San Diego University

    Amplifier Design, Class-E -

    Amplifier Operating Temperature Definitions - Spectrum Microwave

    Designing High Efficiency Amplifiers Using HFETs  - TriQuint Semiconductor

    First-Time-Right Design of RF/Microwave Class A Power Amps Using S-Parameters - Aerial Facilities Limited

    User's Guide to IC Instrumentation Amplifiers - Analog Devices

    Designer's Guide to Instrumentation Amplifiers, eBook -

    Tutorial on Applying Op Amps to RF Applications -

    RF & Microwave Power Amplifier Design - M/A-COM Eurotec
        Lecture 1: Nonlinear Active Device Modeling
        Lecture 2: Impedance Matching
        Lecture 3: PA Design Fundamentals
        Lecture 4: High Efficiency Power Amplifier Design

    Design of Common Collector Class B RF Power Amplifier in InGaP HBT Technology - Oliver Isler

    Selection and Operation of RF Power Amplifiers for EMC Testing Applications - Instruments for Industry (IFI)


    Near-Field Antenna Measurements Using Nonideal Measurement Locations - NIST

    Improvements in Polarization Measurements of Circularly Polarized Probes - NIST

    Effect of Random Errors in Planar Near-Field Measurement - NIST

    Improved Polarization Measurements Using a Modified Three-Antenna Technique - NIST

    Gain and Power Parameter Measurements Using Planar Near-Field Techniques - NIST

    Error Analysis Techniques for Planar Near-Field Measurements - NIST

    Determination of Near-Field Correction Parameters for Circularly Polarized Probes - NIST

    Helical Antennas for High Power RF - Applied Physical Electronics

    Antenna Basics - Granite Island Group

    , by Zhong Chen (I worked w/Zhong at Agilent), ETS Lindgren

    - Telecontrolli.

    - Nathan Cohen, RF Design magazine

    - Zhong Chen and Mike Windler, CE magazine

    - Linx Technologies

    - Linx Technologies

    - ETS Lindgren

    - CE Magazine

    - CE Magazine

    - Antenna Research Associates.

    - Philip Felber.

    - Orban Microwave Products

    - Orban Microwave Products

    - W1GHZ

    - Linx Technologies.

    - Linx Technologies.

    - David Jefferies, of University of Surrey.

    ASICs for RF

    Application Notes and Technical Articles
    By Maxim Integrated Products, Dallas Semiconductor.

    ASIC Design Guidelines
    Application note from Atmel Corporation.


    Attenuators (Step, Fixed, Variable)
    From Narda Microwave East.

    Attenuators (variable)
    Application notes by American Microwave.

    Application notes by Herley.

    Attenuators, PIN
    A Wideband General Purpose PIN Diode Attenuator by Skyworks.

    Minimum loss design by Ernie Kim, University of San Diego, CA.


    - Johanson Technology.


    Alkaline Battery Application Manual - Energizer

    Carbon Zinc Battery Application Manual - Energizer

    Manganese Dioxide Battery Application Manual - Energizer

    - Energizer

    NiCad Battery Application Manual - Energizer

    NiMH Battery Application Manual - Energizer

    Silver Oxide Battery Application Manual - Energizer

    Zinc Air Battery Application Manual - Energizer

    Battery Handling - Li-Ion
    By Matt Schindler, Maxim Integrated Products.

    Battery Management
    Application notes and technical articles by Maxim Integrated Products, Dallas Semiconductor.

    Battery Selection Guide
    nikonians-images.com/ebooks/Nikonians Battery Guide.pdf
    Lots of good information on battery chemistries and charge/discharge characteristics.

    Battery Tutorial
    PowerStream Battery Chemistry - Custom design and manufacture of state-of-the-art battery chargers, UPS, and power supplies for OEMs.


    BluetoothTM Manufacturing Test - A Guide to Getting Started by Agilent Technologies.

    Bluetooth Remote Control from Your Mobile Phone
    flexipanel.com/Docs/Bluetooth Remote Control... From Your Mobile Phone.pdf
    FlexiPanel makes a lot of turnkey modules for ZigBee and Bluetooth applications. Admittedly, this concept does scare me a bit from a terrorist perspective!!!

    Cable / Coaxial Cable

    Weight Reduction and Space Savings in Wire and Cable Design and Their Contribution to Aerospace Design and Efficiency
    by Thermax Connections

    Common Mode Signals
    Understanding Common-Mode Signals - Maxim.

    How Cables and Connectors Impact Measurement Uncertainty
    by Fluke


    Capacitor Basics
    Definitions and configurations, with some equations and illustrations.

    Capacitors - Benefits of Thin-Film Dielectric Chip Capacitors at VHF, UHF and Higher Frequencies
    By virtue of these characteristics and excellent mechanical features, this thin film capacitor is the ideal surface mount chip for high frequency applications.

    Capacitors, Ceramic
    avx.com/techinfo_doclisting.asp?Category=Ceramic Capacitors
    Technical information by AVX.

    Capacitors, Energy Handling
    Energy and power handling capabilities of thin film and ceramic capacitors - AVX.

    Capacitor Primer
    A very nice introduction to capacitors including history back to Leyden Jar - Tony vanRoon.

    Capacitor Q & ESR Explained.
    A Johanson Technology Primer.

    Capacitor RF Current & Power
    By Johnson Technology.

    Cascade Analysis
    Gain, NF, IP3, IP2, P1dB, Intermods

    Half-IF (2x2 product)
    By Maxim.

    Intercept Points & Receiver Sensitivity
    By Maxim.

    Clocks & Jitter

    Adjust mismatched delay lines in Cypress Semiconductor Application Note on Jitter in Transmission Systems
    Describes the basics of jitter in transmission systems.

    DDS-Based Clock Jitter Performance vs. DAC Reconstruction Filter Performance
    Describes the results obtained from a filter layou500彩票手机快三在线投注t experiment and discusses how layou500彩票手机快三在线投注t and component selection impact stop-band rejection.

    Fine tuning clock source for Agilent Pattern Generator 70841B
    Provides design guidance, test techniques, performance data and suggested layou500彩票手机快三在线投注t recommendations for a 622 MBd ATM/SONET/SDH physical layer interface reference circuit.

    Jitter in Clock Sources
    Application note by Vectron International.

    Junction Temperatures and MTTF in MMIC Devices
    Article by Radha P.N. Setty, in August 2005  RF Design magazine.

    Measuring Jitter in Digital Systems
    For engineers who design data transfer systems and components operating at over a gigabit per second, and so must be concerned with the effects of jitter on their system's bit error ratio (BER).

    Phase Noise Measurements & Jitter Analysis
    The Agilent JS-1000 Performance Jitter Solution is a Phase Noise System that measures clock jitter characteristics.

    Synchronizing differential clock sources for Bit Error Ratio Test (BERT)
    Interfacing the OmniBER 725 communications performance analyzer to optical transceivers.


    Basic Circulator Facts - UTE Microwave.

    Isolator/Circulator Basics
    Isolator/Circulator basic theory and definitions, common applications, power ratings, special handling and storage considerations, from MECA Electronics.


    "The Best Defense is a Good Offense"
    Authorized Component Distributors Help Military/Aerospace OEMs Plan for Obsolescence - Avnet.


      -  Complex 2 Real
    This is the mother lode of communications tutorials, compliments of Charan Langton. These hyperlinks go to pages with comments and a link to each PDF file.
    • Tutorial 1  - 
    • Tutorial 2  - 
    • Tutorial 3  - 
    • (formerly Tutorials 4-7)
      • Chapter 1  - 
      • Chapter 2  - 
      • Chapter 3  - 
      • Chapter 4  - 
      • Chapter 5  - 
      • Chapter 6  - 
      • Chapter 7  - 
    • Tutorial 7  - 
    • Tutorial 8  -  All About Modulation  -  Part 1
    • Tutorial 9  - 
    • Tutorial 10  - 
    • Tutorial 11  - 
    • Tutorial 12  - 
    • Tutorial 13  - 
    • Tutorial 14  - 
    • Tutorial 15  - 
    • Tutorial 16  - 
    • Tutorial 17  - 
    • Tutorial 18  - 
    • Tutorial 19  - 
    • Tutorial 20  - 
    • Tutorial 21  - 
    • Tutorial 22  - 
    • Tutorial 23a  -  About Lattice and Cosets
    • Tutorial 23b  - 
    • Tutorial 24a  - 
    • Tutorial 24b  -   (step-by-stepcompanion worksheet)
    • Tutorial 25 – Spread spectrum and CDMA – How cell phones work
    • Tutorial 26 –  – Butterworth, Chebyshev, Elliptic, IIR, FIR, Adaptive filters
    • Tutorial 27 – Finding MIMO – A little bit more than a tutorial on MIMO!

    Control &  Monitoring

    Control & Monitoring
    By Texas Instruments.

    Couplers - Directional, Bidirectional

    Hybrid Coupler Basics
    App note by MECA Electronics

    From Narda Microwave East.

    Directional Coupler Basics
    How to specify the best directional coupler solution for you500彩票手机快三在线投注r critical application, from MECA Electronics.

    Directional Couplers
    macom.com/Application Notes/pdf/m560.pdf
    RF Directional Couplers and 3dB Hybrids Overview - M/A-COM.

    Directional Couplers & Power Dividers
    Very informative presentation from the National Taiwan University (in English)

    Hybrid Coupler Basics
    Basic theory and common applications for 90° and 180° hybrid couplers, from MECA Electronics.

    From Narda Microwave East.

    Why Directional Couplers Are Better for High Power Measurements vs. Attenuators
    From MECA Electronics.

    Microwave Coupler Feeds Outdoor Antenna Through Walls
    May 2006 HFS - Gunther Knapp

    Current / Energy / Voltage / Power

    Power Management
    Power Management application notes by Texas Instruments.

    Power Meters & Sensors
    - Exodus Advanced Communications

    Decibel Tutorial: dB and dBm vs. Gain and Milliwatts - RF Cafe
    The concept of a decibel (dB) is understandably difficult and confusing for someone just being introduced to it. Combining specifications for gain, power, and voltage (and current, but not so often) that mix dB, dBm, dBW, watts, milliwatts, voltage, millivolts, etc., often requires converting back and forth between linear values and decibel values.


    Decoupling: A Standard Methodology - Barry Caldwell, Vitesse -- EDN

    Decoupling Capacitors - Carl Lodstrom.

    - Rahman Jamal, Mike Cerna, John Hanks, NI

    De-Embedding & Embedding

    - Agilent Technologies

    Delay Lines

    Adjust mis-matched delay lines in Cypress Semiconductor Application Note
    Describes the basics of jitter in transmission systems.

    CPDL Operating and Programming Manual
    Custom Programmable Delay Line (CPDL) Operating and Programming Manual.

    PDL-30A Operating and Programming Manual
    Programmable Delay Line Operating and Programming Manual.


    Level Detector
    A Level Detector Design for Dual-Band GSM-PCS Handsets - Skyworks.

    Square Law and Linear Detection by Agilent Technologies.


    Dielectric Aging
    By ATC Ceramics.

    Dielectric Properties of Portland Cement in the Low Microwave Frequency Range
    scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-92598-152639/unrestricted/KIRAN2.PDF#search='dielectric constant portland concrete'
    Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University - covers mainly up through 700 MHz.

    Dielectric Constants of Wall Materials
    antd.nist.gov/wctg/manet/docs/models.pdf#search='dielectric constant building walls concrete'
    "Ultra-wideband Propagation Measurements and Channel Modeling DARPA NETEX Program Report on Through-the-Wall Propagation and Material Characterization"

    Digital Modulation

    Digital Modulation in Communications Systems
    This application note covers the reasons for the move to digital modulation, how information is modulated onto in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signals, different types of digital modulation, filtering techniques, ways of looking at digitally modulated signals, multiplexing techniques, how a digital transmitter and receiver work, measurements on digital RF communications systems, an overview table with key specifications for the major digital communications systems, a glossary of terms used in digital RF communications.

    EMC / EMI / ESD / RFI

    Harmonic Measurement for IEC 61000-4-3 and other Radiated Immunity Standards
    by AR Worldwide

    System-Level ESD Protection Guide
    by Texas Instruments

    Selection and Operation of RF Power Amplifiers for EMC Testing Applications
    by Instruments for Industry (IFI)

    Electromagnetic Radiation and Human Health
    High Frequency Electronics

    A Review of Sources and Effects
    A very good synopsis from the July 2005 edition of High Frequency Electronics

    EMC Antenna Fundamentals
    by Zhong Chen, ETS Lindgren (I worked with Zhong at Agilent)

    Electrostatic Discharge Association website.

    EMI/RFI Shielding
    By Tech-Etch.


    Equalizer Key Specifications
    "A Review of Key Equalizer Specifications and What They Mean," by Richard Kurzrok, Oct 2005 High Frequency Electronics magazine.

    Fiber Optics

    Fiber Optics Amplifier Tutorial
    This tutorial should be useful both as an introduction to fiber amplifiers and for learning more details on them. We believe that even people already having a substantial experience with fiber amplifiers will find it helpful for deepening the understanding. The focus is on the underlying physics and the resulting technical consequences; we do not simply treat a fiber amplifier as a “black box”, but rather look inside.
    By RP Photonics Consulting GmbH

    Passive Fiber Optics Tutorial
    Comprehensive physics-based tutorial on fiber optics which clarifies the foundations of this field. As an example, it discusses how coupling losses at fiber joints arise, and explains how to estimate their strength.
    By RP Photonics Consulting GmbH


    Near Field, The World of the
    Here's a good article in the October 2005 edition of Evaluation Engineering - Tom Lecklider.

    Network Analysis
    Very informative presentation from the National Taiwan University (in English)

    Filters - SAW, BAW, Lumped

    Analog Filter Design Demystified
    Application note by Maxim Integrated Products.

    Filter Design, Distributed Element
    Periodic structures and equivalent lumped element models.

    Filter Design - Transmission Line
    Very informative presentation from the National Taiwan University (in English)

    Fiber Optic Products
    From Narda Microwave East.

    Devoted to RF & microwave filter theory and design.
    Microwave Lowpass Filters with a Constricted Equi-Ripple Passband
    Dieter Pelz.
    Revision of Cascade Synthesis Theory Covering Cross-Coupled Filters
    Dieter Pelz

    GPS Systems

    Application of UART in GPS Navigation System
    From Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.

    Ground / Grounding

    Power Plane & Ground Design for RF PCBs
    Power supply and ground design for WiFi transceiver - By Roger Bremer, Tracey Chavers, Zhongmin Yu, RF Design magazine.

    Group Delay

    Group Delay
    By Applied Radio Labs.

    Heat Transfer

    What They Didn't Teach You in Engineering School About Heat Transfer

    Inductors / Magnetics

    RF inductor design, from Ernie Kim, University of San Diego, CA.

    Intercept Points & Receiver Sensitivity
    By Maxim.

    Magnetic Core Design Rules
    By Lodestone Pacific.


    "New Release of Mil-Std-883 Visual Inspection Criteria"
    TJ Green Associates LLC

    Intercept Points (IP2 & IP3)

    By Broadcom

    Interference / Intermodulation

    Two-Tone vs. Single-Tone Measurement of 2nd-Order Non-linearity and IP2 Performance of Direct Conversion Receivers
    By Skyworks

    Interference Mitigation
    "Detecting Interfering Signals and Mitigating Them" by Steve Thomas, Jan 2005 RF Design


    Isolator & Circulator Basics
    App note by MECA Electronics


    Application Notes & Technical Papers by 500彩票手机快三在线投注 / Source Name

    About RF Cafe
    Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe Webmaster
    500彩票手机快三在线投注: 1996 - 2024
        Kirt Blattenberger,
        BSEE - KB3UON

    RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The Internet was still largely an unknown entity at the time and not much was available in the form of WYSIWYG ...

    All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.

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